Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
We design and market equipment to telecommunications service providers worldwide. Our products and services provide solutions to deliver wireline and wireless voice, data and video services for business and residential customers. We also provide installation and professional services that support our products.
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Tellabs and our subsidiaries. We eliminated all intercompany accounts and transactions.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Our financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, marketable securities, cost-basis investments and derivatives. The carrying value of the cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable are reasonable estimates of their fair value because of their short-term nature. We determine the fair value of marketable securities based on quoted market prices and the fair value of our derivatives is based on quoted market prices or current rates offered for instruments with similar characteristics. See discussion in Notes 5 and 6 regarding investments and derivatives, respectively.
Accounts Receivable Allowances
We base our reserve for allowances on our assessment of the collectibility of customer accounts. We regularly review the allowance by considering factors such as customer financial strength, the age of accounts receivable balances, current economic conditions that may affect a customer's ability to pay and historical experience. As specific balances are determined to be ultimately uncollectible, they are removed from our accounts receivable aging.
Inventories and Suppliers
We determine our inventory cost using the first-in, first-out method. We value our inventory at the lower of cost or market, with market determined at the lower of current replacement cost or net realizable selling price. We determine the amount of inventory that is excess and obsolete and purchase commitments in excess of requirements using estimates of future demand for individual components of raw materials and finished goods.
We obtain products from third-party suppliers, due to the outsourcing of our manufacturing. Although a limited number of suppliers are used to manufacture our products, we believe other suppliers could provide similar products on comparable terms. An inability of a supplier to provide product would cause a near-term reduction of revenue, which would affect operating results adversely.
Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment at cost. We compute depreciation using both the declining-balance and straight-line methods. Buildings are depreciated over 25 to 40 years; building improvements over 7 years; leasehold improvements over the lesser of the life of the lease or the useful life of the asset, currently 3 to 15 years; and equipment over 3 to 10 years. We evaluate property, plant and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable.
At the beginning of 2006, we adopted the provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 123(R), Share-Based Payments, requiring us to recognize expense related to the fair value of our stock-based compensation awards. We elected to use the modified prospective transition method, and therefore did not restate prior periods. In addition, we eliminated the balance of deferred compensation expense in Stockholders' Equity against Additional paid-in-capital on December 31, 2005, as required by this statement.
Prior to the adoption of SFAS 123(R), we accounted for equity-based compensation plans under Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees. If compensation cost for our stock-based compensation plans had been determined using the fair value at the grant dates for awards under those plans consistent with the method required by SFAS 123, Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation, our net earnings and net earnings per share would have changed to the pro forma amounts indicated below:
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis at enacted tax rates when such amounts are expected to be realized or settled. We provide valuation allowances if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
We report operating results for three segments: Broadband, Transport and Services. Our segments represent our reporting units, which are used for evaluation purposes. We test each operating segment for possible goodwill impairment annually and when impairment indicators exist, by comparing each segment's net book value to fair value in accordance with SFAS 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is subjective because it requires the use of estimates and assumptions. We use the discounted cash flow method to estimate the fair value of each operating segment. This methodology requires us to use estimates and judgments about the future cash flows of our operating segments. The assumptions used in our cash flow forecasts are consistent with plans and estimates we use to manage the underlying operating segments However, events or circumstances could arise in the future that may create a need to record an impairment.
Our intangible assets are made up primarily of purchased technology and customer relationships from acquisitions. All assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives and reviewed for impairment, in accordance with SFAS 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, when indicators of impairment exist, such as retention of customer relationships, customer acceptance of Company products and underlying technology and reduced product margins indicating declining operating performance or cash flows.
We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price or fee is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured in accordance with the guidance in the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) No. 104, Revenue Recognition.
Contracts and customer purchase orders are generally used to determine the existence of an arrangement. Shipping terms and related documents are used to verify delivery or performance.
The Company assesses whether the sales price is fixed or determinable based on payment terms and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment. If the fee is not fixed or determinable, revenue is recognized as payments become due from the customer.
Collectibility is assessed based on the creditworthiness of the customer as determined by credit checks and the customer's payment history to the Company. If collectibility is not considered probable, revenue is not recognized until the fee is collected.
The majority of our revenue comes from product sales. We generally recognize revenue either upon shipment or upon delivery to the customer, depending on the contractual delivery terms.
Some of our customer agreements contain acceptance clauses that grant the customer the right to return or exchange products that do not conform to specifications. If we do not have sufficient historical evidence of customer acceptance, we recognize revenue when the conditions of acceptance have been met or the acceptance provisions lapse. When we have sufficient historical evidence that our products meet the specifications, we recognize revenue upon shipment or delivery.
Some customer agreements grant the right to return or exchange product based on subjective criteria. We accrue for returns under the guidance of SFAS No. 48, Revenue Recognition When Right of Return Exists, based on historical evidence of rates of return. We recognize revenue, net of potential returns, upon shipment or upon delivery of the product to the customer.
Some of our customer arrangements are in the form of distribution agreements, with contractual rights of return, promotional rebates, and other incentives and credits. We recognize revenue net of estimated returns and rebates, which are calculated based on contractual provisions and historical evidence of returns activity.
We also recognize revenue from deployment services, support agreements, training and other professional services. Deployment services revenue results from installation of our products at customer sites. Installation services, which generally occur over a short time period, are not services essential to the functionality of our products, as customers may purchase installation services from us, install our products themselves, or hire third parties to perform the installation. We recognize revenue for deployment services upon completion. We recognize revenue from support agreements ratably over the service period. We recognize training and other professional services revenue upon completion.
Some of our customer arrangements include multiple deliverables, such as product sales that include services to be performed after delivery of the product. In such cases, we apply the guidance in Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) 00-21, Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables. Generally, we account for a deliverable (or a group of deliverables) separately if (1) the delivered item(s) has stand-alone value to the customer, (2) there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered item(s) included in the arrangement, and (3) if we have given the customer a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) or service(s) is probable and substantially in our control.
We generally determine if objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the items included in a multiple-element arrangement exists based on whether we have vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of the price that we sell an item for on a stand-alone basis. If we do not have VSOE for the item, we will use the price charged by a vendor selling a comparable product or service on a stand-alone basis to similarly situated customers, if available.
When there is objective and reliable evidence of fair value for all units of accounting in an arrangement, we allocate the arrangement consideration to the separate units of accounting based on their relative fair values. In cases where we have objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the undelivered items in an arrangement, but no such evidence for the delivered items, we allocate the arrangement consideration using the residual method. If the elements cannot be considered separate units of accounting, or if we cannot determine the fair value of any of the undelivered elements, we defer revenue until the entire arrangement is delivered or fair value can be determined for all undelivered units of accounting.
Once we have determined the amount, if any, of arrangement consideration allocable to the undelivered item(s), we apply the applicable revenue recognition policy, as described elsewhere herein, to determine when such amount may be recognized as revenue.
When an arrangement includes software that is more than incidental, we account for the transaction under the provisions of Statement of Position (SOP) 97-2, Software Revenue Recognition. If the arrangement includes non-software elements for which software is essential to the functionality of the element, those elements are also accounted for under SOP 97-2, as prescribed in EITF 03-05, Applicability of AICPA Statement of Position 97-2 to Non-Software Deliverables in an Arrangement Containing More-Than-Incidental Software.
Many of our customer arrangements include the right to invoice the customer for costs of shipping product to the customer's location. In these cases, we record the amount included on the customer's invoice for shipping costs as revenue, in accordance with EITF 00-10, Accounting for Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs. The cost of shipping products to customers is recorded as cost of revenue.
EITF 06-03, How Taxes Collected from Customers and Remitted to Governmental Authorities Should be Presented in the Income Statement, which was issued in 2006, allows revenue to be presented either gross or net of these sales-related taxes. We record revenue net of any sales-related taxes that are billed to our customers. We believe this approach results in financial statements that are more easily understood by investors.
Earnings Per Share
We base earnings per share on the weighted average number of common shares (basic) and the weighted average common shares adjusted for assumed exercises of dilutive stock options, restricted stock and shares under the employee stock purchase plan (diluted). We base earnings per share in periods of a net loss solely on basic weighted average number of common shares under generally accepted accounting principles.
Foreign Currency Translation
We generally measure the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries using the local currency as the functional currency. In such cases, we translate assets and liabilities at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and we translate revenue and expenses at weighted average exchange rates during the year. We record the gain or loss from translating a subsidiary's stockholders' equity into U.S. dollars as foreign currency translation adjustments in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.
Foreign Currency Transactions
We recognize foreign currency transaction gains and losses resulting from changes in exchange rates in Other expense, net. We recorded net losses of $1.1 million in 2007, $2.5 million in 2006 and $4.0 million in 2005.